Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of T-cell lymphoma – a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that develops from white blood cells called T cells. Under a microscope, the cancerous cells in ALCL look large, undeveloped and very abnormal (‘anaplastic’).
There are four main types of ALCL. They have complicated names based on their features and the types of proteins they make:
- ALK-positive ALCL (also known as ALK+ ALCL) is the most common type. In ALK-positive ALCL, the abnormal T cells have a genetic change (mutation) that means they make a protein called ‘anaplastic lymphoma kinase’ (ALK). In other words, they test positive for ALK. ALK-positive ALCL is a fast-growing (high-grade) lymphoma.
- ALK-negative ALCL (also known as ALK- ALCL) is a high-grade lymphoma that accounts for around 3 in every 10 cases of ALCL. The abnormal T cells do not make the ALK protein – they test negative for ALK.
- Breast implant-associated ALCL is a T-cell lymphoma that develops extremely rarely following silicone breast implantation, particularly with textured rather than smooth implants. Although it develops in the breast, it is not a type of breast cancer. It is usually slow-growing (low-grade). Scientists think it might be caused by an inflammatory reaction to the implant.
- Primary cutaneous ALCL is a low-grade T-cell lymphoma that develops in the skin. We have more information on this type of ALCL on our page about T-cell skin lymphoma.
ALCL is rare. Each year, fewer than 200 people are diagnosed with ALCL in the UK.
Different types of ALCL usually affect different groups of people:
- ALK-positive ALCL usually affects children and young adults, commonly in their 30s. It affects three times more males than females.
- ALK-negative ALCL tends to affect older adults, typically around 40 to 65 years old. It is slightly more common in men than women.
- Breast implant-associated ALCL is extremely rare. It affects around 80 in every million people who have had breast implants. It is more common in people with implants that have a rough, textured surface than people with smooth implants. It typically develops 8 to 10 years after having the implant but it can develop sooner.
If you are under 25 and have been diagnosed with ALCL, or if you have a child who has been diagnosed with ALCL, you might find our information on lymphoma in children and young people useful.
People with ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL typically have swollen lymph nodes and B symptoms (fevers, night sweats and weight loss). ALCL is also commonly found outside the lymph nodes (extranodal areas), where it can cause many different symptoms.
- Lymphoma affecting the gut (gastrointestinal system) might cause bloating, pain, sickness, diarrhoea or vomiting.
- If you have lymphoma in your chest, you might feel short of breath, develop a cough or have pain or a feeling of pressure in your chest.
- Your bone marrow (the spongy tissue in the centre of bones where blood cells are made) might be affected, which can lead to anaemia (low red blood cells) and thrombocytopenia (low platelet levels).
- You might develop a rash.
Most people with ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL are diagnosed at an advanced stage (stage 3 or 4), which means the lymphoma affects several parts of the body.
People with breast implant-associated ALCL typically develop a build-up of fluid or a lump around the implant. It can be uncomfortable. This type of ALCL does not usually spread outside the affected breast. It is usually diagnosed at an early stage (stage 1 or 2).
The treatment you need depends on what type of ALCL you have.
ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL
ALCL is rare. This makes it difficult to determine which treatment gives the best outcome. Several targeted drugs are being tested in clinical trials. Your doctor might ask you if you would like to take part in a clinical trial to help test new treatments and to find out what the best treatment is for ALCL.
If you don’t want to take part in a clinical trial, or if there isn’t one that is suitable for you, you are likely to be treated with chemotherapy. The most common chemotherapy regimen used for ALCL is CHOP:
- doxorubicin (or hydroxydaunorubicin)
- vincristine (also known as Oncovin®)
- prednisolone (a steroid).
You might have a chemotherapy drug called etoposide in addition to CHOP (CHEOP), or you might have a different chemotherapy regimen altogether. The number of cycles and the exact type of chemotherapy you have depends on several factors like your age, the stage of your lymphoma and whether it is ALK-positive or ALK-negative. Some people with early-stage ALK-positive ALCL might also have radiotherapy to the affected area.
At the time of writing, a drug called brentuximab vedotin is being assessed to decide:
- whether it should be licensed to treat certain T-cell lymphomas in combination with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin and prednisolone (CHP)
- whether it should be funded for use on the NHS.
Brentuximab vedotin is a strong anti-cancer drug joined to an antibody that binds to a protein called CD30 on the surface of T cells. This carries the drug directly to the T cells and kills them.
If you have ALK-negative ALCL and you respond to chemotherapy, your doctor might recommend that you have a self (autologous) stem cell transplant. This gives you a better chance of staying in remission (no evidence of lymphoma). If you have ALK-positive ALCL, you might not need a stem cell transplant.
If you have breast implant-associated ALCL, you have the implant and any lumps or fluid removed by surgery. This might be all the treatment you need. You are then followed-up carefully to make sure all the lymphoma has been removed. If the lymphoma is more widespread, you are likely to have chemotherapy, usually with CHOP.
Relapsed and refractory ALCL
If your lymphoma doesn’t respond (refractory) or comes back (relapses) after treatment, you might be treated with brentuximab vedotin. If brentuximab vedotin is not suitable for you, or if it is not available in your area, you might have a different chemotherapy regimen or a targeted drug, usually through a clinical trial.
If you respond to more treatment and you are fit enough, you might have a donor (allogeneic) stem cell transplant to increase your chance of staying in remission.
Many new treatments are being tested to see if they can help people with T-cell lymphoma. Drugs that are being tested in ALCL include:
- cell signal blockers, including a drug called crizotinib, which blocks the activity of ALK, and alisertib, which blocks a protein called Aurora A kinase (AAK)
- antibody–drug conjugates that bind to a protein called CD30 on T cells, such as brentuximab vedotin
- proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib
- HDAC inhibitors such as vorinostat
- a chemotherapy drug called pralatrexate.
Some of these might be available to you through a clinical trial. If you are interested in taking part in a clinical trial, ask your doctor if there is a trial that might be suitable for you. To find out more about clinical trials or search for a trial that might be suitable for you, visit Lymphoma TrialsLink.