Causes and risk factors for lymphoma

This information gives an overview of some of the factors that might contribute to the development of lymphoma. However, in most cases of lymphoma, there is no known cause.

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What causes lymphoma?

Causes and risk factors

Age

Family history

Infections

Lowered immune system

Autoimmune conditions

Other possible factors


What causes lymphoma?

If you have lymphoma, it’s not because of anything you did or didn’t do. You can’t catch lymphoma and you can’t give it to anybody else.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops when white blood cells called lymphocytes grow out of control. This happens if the DNA inside a lymphocyte changes in a way that tells it to stop responding to the signals that usually keep it under control.

One DNA change on its own is not usually enough to cause lymphoma. It usually takes a number of different changes before a cancer starts to grow. In most cases, it’s not known what causes these changes. Most of them probably happen by chance, although in some cases a cause can be identified. There are also some factors that might make you more likely to develop the DNA changes that lead to lymphoma. These are called ‘risk factors’.

Most people who develop lymphoma have none of these risk factors and the cause is unknown.

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Causes and risk factors

In medical terms, a cause is something that leads to an illness. Without the cause, the illness doesn’t happen. Removing the cause can often cure the illness.

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting an illness. It is not the same as a cause. A risk factor means there is a link (or ‘association’) between the factor and the illness, but it does not necessarily mean that the risk factor causes the illness. Other factors – or even pure chance – could be involved. Removing the risk factor might not affect the illness.

  • For example, there is an association between eczema and T-cell skin lymphoma. This doesn’t necessarily mean that eczema causes skin lymphoma. In fact, eczema and skin lymphoma often look very similar. The association might simply be that T-cell skin lymphoma is sometimes misdiagnosed as eczema at first.

Causes of lymphoma

In most cases, there is no known cause for lymphoma. However, for a few types of lymphoma, scientists have identified a cause:

  • Most cases of gastric MALT lymphoma are caused by a common bacterial infection called Helicobacter pylori. Usually, Helicobacter pylori causes stomach ulcers and indigestion. It is easily treated. Most people with Helicobacter pylori infection do not get lymphoma, but almost all people who get gastric MALT lymphoma have Helicobacter pylori infection. Treating the infection often cures the lymphoma. This makes Helicobacter pylori a cause not just a risk factor.
  • Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is caused by having textured breast implants. Although it develops in the breast, BIA-ALCL is a type of lymphoma, not a type of breast cancer. It is more common in people with implants that have a rough, textured surface than people with smooth implants. Scientists think it might be caused by an inflammatory reaction to the implant. It typically develops 8 to 10 years after having the implant but it can develop sooner or later than this. Most people with breast implants do not develop BIA-ALCL – but everyone who develops BIA-ALCL has breast implants. In many cases, removing the breast implants cures the lymphoma. Again, this makes breast implants a cause not just a risk factor.

Risk factors for lymphoma

There are several risk factors linked to lymphoma. Some of these increase your chance of developing any type of lymphoma. Some of them increase your risk of developing particular types of lymphoma.

Having one or more risk factors for lymphoma does not mean you will develop it. It means you are a bit more likely to develop lymphoma than someone with no risk factors. For most people, the risk of developing lymphoma is very small. Even if you have risk factors, your chance of developing lymphoma is usually still very small.

Risk factors for lymphoma include:

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Age

Lymphoma can develop at any age, but most types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma are more common in older people. This is because genetic changes in your cells (mutations) tend to build up throughout your life. Some of these changes can lead to lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma, however, is most common in people aged between 15 and 40.

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Family history

Lymphoma is not passed on from parent to child (inherited).

Most people who have a close family member with lymphoma or another blood cancer do not develop lymphoma themselves. However, your risk of developing lymphoma is slightly higher if you have a close relative (parent, brother or sister, or child) who has had lymphoma or another type of blood cancer. This might be due to lots of small genetic changes that all increase your risk of lymphoma slightly.

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Infections

Lymphoma is not infectious. You cannot catch lymphoma and you cannot pass it on to someone else.

However, there are some infections that can increase your chance of developing lymphoma. There are a few reasons for this:

  • Some viruses infect lymphocytes – the type of cell that grows out of control if you have lymphoma. Occasionally, these viruses can cause changes to the DNA of the cells so they become cancerous.
  • Some infections make your immune system too active. This means your body is constantly making new lymphocytes, which increases the chance of changes developing in their DNA. Occasionally, these DNA changes can lead to lymphoma.
  • Some infections weaken your immune system. This makes it harder for your body to fight off other infections, including infections that might be linked to lymphoma.

Many of the infections linked to lymphoma are very common. Most people who have these infections do not get lymphoma. Scientists don’t know why some people who have certain infections get lymphoma while most don’t.

Viral infections

A number of different viral infections have been linked to lymphoma. They include:

Bacterial infections

Some bacterial infections have also been linked to lymphoma. They include:

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Lowered immune system

If you have a lowered immune system, you are less able to fight infections. This includes infections that increase your chance of developing lymphoma. There are two particular conditions that lower your immune system and have a higher risk of lymphoma. These are:

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Autoimmune conditions

Autoimmune conditions are illnesses that develop when your immune system mistakenly attacks your own body.

Most people with autoimmune conditions do not develop lymphoma. However, some autoimmune conditions are linked to a higher chance of developing certain types of lymphoma. This might be because autoimmune conditions can cause long-term activation of the immune system. Another possible reason is that people with autoimmune conditions are likely to be on medicines that dampen their immune system. Both of these factors can contribute to the development of lymphoma. 

Several autoimmune disorders might increase your chance of developing lymphoma.

Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition that is linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Scientists are studying eczema to work out whether or not it is an autoimmune condition.

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Other possible factors

Many studies have looked at other possible causes of lymphoma. Sometimes one or two studies suggest a possible link, but others find something different. Because most types of lymphoma are rare, it can be difficult to work out whether or not a factor increases your chance of developing it or not.

Previous cancer treatment

Some chemotherapy drugs used to treat other types of cancer, including other blood cancers, might increase your chance of developing lymphoma in the future. Exposure to radiation, including radiotherapy for other cancers, can also increase your risk of developing lymphoma.

However, most people who’ve been treated for another cancer do not develop lymphoma.

Weight

Having a body mass index of over 30 (obesity) increases your risk of developing many types of cancer, including Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).

Keeping a healthy lifestyle by maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet can reduce your risk of many health problems. Cancer Research UK has more information on reducing your risk of developing cancers by following a healthy lifestyle.

Chemicals

Being around high levels of industrial chemicals, solvents, weedkillers and insecticides are possible risk factors for developing lymphoma. Hair dyes might also be a risk factor, although modern hair dyes seem to be safer than those used in the past (pre-1980s). However, the evidence on all these chemicals is limited and scientists aren’t sure if there is a link with lymphoma or not.

Working in a job where you’re exposed to high levels of these chemicals (for example, crop farming, hairdressing, painting and decorating, or working in the rubber manufacturing industry) might slightly increase your risk of developing lymphoma. Most people who work in these occupations do not develop lymphoma.

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Further reading